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No 52
Vol. 52 No. 13
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The productiveness and flexibility of production against impulses is a prerequisite for the resilience of the Iranian economy. On the other hand, the realization of investment in manufacturing sectors depends more on the political economy of Iran than macroeconomic variable. In the current context of the Iranian economy, interest groups, by expanding the immortal sectors, impede the directing of capital to productive sectors. The phenomenon such as the instability of the industrial development strategy, the role of the interest groups in the immature sectors, and the failure to take policy tools to reduce the unproductive sector's returns has led to the institutionalization of the patient's political economy in the country. In this paper, the effects of political economy on investment in order to realize the strength of the economy are examined and some suggested strategies are proposed to exit from the current situation in order to boost investment in productive sectors
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Keywords : Iranian Economy ، Investment ، Political Economy ، Interest Groups ، Non-Productive Sectors
Aiming to survey how the increase in oil revenue influenced on the collapse of the second Pahlavi regime, the present article is formed based on the theory of “rentier state”. In this regard, the paper maintains that considering Mohammad-Reza`s government as a rentier state would allow to conceive its structure and the ultimate decay. According to the theory, such description might be applicable to those states which a large majority of their overall revenue comes from regular foreign revenue rather than national production cycle. Such performance, negatively affecting the economic, social and political realm of the society, is much likely to end up in the legitimacy crisis and the collapse of the state itself. Accordingly, having become a rentier state from late1950s on, due to the rise in oil revenue, the second Pahlavi reign encountered some negative impact of such situation on its economy, politics, and society, which, all in all, had de-stabilizing effects on regime. Ever-increasing governmental domination over the economy, rise in the proportion of oil-driven revenues in governmental budget and development policies, a more autocrat king, extension of security/ intelligence services and, consequently, a more political oppression, taking control the society by bureaucracy, prevalence of financial corruption and promotion of rent-seeking ethos, and propagating the formal/ government-run culture by the regime are some of the most significant such effects. Hence, this situation caused to a gap between government and the people, their distrust in regime as an illegitimate one, and, consequently, contributed to its collapse in 1979. To explain the data, the present paper takes advantage of a descriptive-analytic method
Keywords : Rentier State, ، the Second Pahlavi Regime ، Oil Revenue ، Autocracy ، Collapse
Nowadays there is another producing element beside the human, financial and economic capitals, named social capital, which is an aspect of social cooperation. This concept refers to connections and communications of members of a network as a valuable source which cause achievement of goals by creating norms and mutual trust. The governments need the cooperation of public, specially the elites, in execution of economic plans because the cooperation of elites and economic brokers in execution of economic policies of the government shall facilitate the achievement of goals and the feedbacks of the elites to the economic plans of the government may amend the weak points of the government plans and increase the efficiency of the performance of the government. On the other hand the trust of the people to the government may increase their partnership in execution of government plans and political support from the government in such a way that the government may perform its economic, political and social plans more effectively in case of partnership and cooperation of people. the main objective of this paper is analyzing the effect of social cooperation on economic growth in selected middle income countries. The results of the model using fixed effects and Generalized Method of Moments in selected countries in the 2013-1994 shows that the social cooperation has a positive and significant effect on economic growth in selected countries.
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Keywords : Social Cooperation ، Economic Growth ، Panel Data
In most inter temporal analysis in order to make current and future figures comparable, discounting is inevitable. It is applicable not only in private sector analysis but in public ones. But due to intrinsic differences among these two sectors (such as projects time horizon and intergeneration affairs, externalities, market failure and …) discount rate would be different in public sector as it is known as Social Discount Rate. It defined as the rate in which society evaluate current welfare/ consumption regarding to future one. The nature, scope and approaches to the social discount rate calculation and the countries experiences (including Iran) is the main theme of this article. Finally we led to some applied recommendations, as follows: Countries should take into account their own economic, social, institutional and social conditions in calculating discount rate. Finally, having the unique procedure at the national level in the field of choosing social discount rate is highly recommended for public sector institutions and organizations
Keywords : Discounting ، Social Discount Rate ، Public & Private Sector
The emergence of interdisciplinary approach, caused very diverse and wide composing and commingling of different areas. One of the phenomena that it’s interdisciplinary nature is clear, is phenomenon of the city. The concept of "knowledge based city" is very broad and may include all aspects of social, economic and cultural dimensions. knowledge based city with the aim of developing based on knowledge, by creating continuous encouragement, sharing, evaluating, modernization and update knowledge. knowledge based city involved diffrent range of sciences such as economy, geography and urban planning and social sciences and many other areas of expertise. knowledge based city is depend on knowledge based development to create continuous encouragement, sharing, evaluating, modernization and update knowledge. This can be achieved through continuous interaction between citizens and at the same time take place between them and citizens of other cities. The method of this article is documentary and library research related method with aims to explore and analyze the concept of knowledge based city. The findings of this research with study few internal And external studies resources, resulting in the presentation of dimensions, elements and indicators category that related to knowledge based city and in other words, identify collaborative and interdisciplinary dimensions of "knowledge based city" concept. In terms of this paper, dimensions of knowledge based city was place economy, sustainable urban design (physical), the development of knowledge based (social) and components and indicators that have been associated with each other. This means that the economic location; components of access to skilled and diverse labor, access to developed infrastructure and location direct costs, appropriate urban design (physical), component of access to scientific and academic environment and the existence of local consumer market and ultimately the development of knowledge based (social) components of culture, have been covered sharing of the knowledge
Keywords : Knowledge Based City ، Place Economy ، Knowledge Based Development ، Urban Planning ، Interdisciplinary

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